Türkiye is a vast, diverse country, and that is reflected in the geography and geology of the country. The Aegean region in the west is known for its long coastline. The ecoregion consists of sclerophyllous and mixed forests and is home to some limited-range bird species, as well as a wide variety of sea life. The Black Sea region in the north is known for its dramatic mountains and high precipitation. This lush, green region has broadleaf, mixed, and deciduous forests alongside steep gorges, rushing rivers, and folded highlands. The wide Central Anatolia region is diverse, with ecoregions that include temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, temperate coniferous forests, temperate grasslands, savannas, shrublands, Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub. The temperature is semi-arid.
With the highest altitudes and the coldest winters, the Eastern Anatolia region contains plains and plateaus, lakes and rivers, massifs, and mountains. 11% of the forested regions in Türkiye are in this part of the country. The Marmara region in northwestern Türkiye contains mountains and islands in the Sea of Marmara, alongside various forests, and woodlands. The Mediterranean region, hemmed in by the eponymous sea, is dominated by Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands. The Toros Mountains cover much of the region. The Southeastern Anatolia region is semi-arid, with hot dry summers and cold snowy winters. The Tigris and Euphrates rivers both cut through this region.